Gamification elements in language education have been trending recently. Language education software has evolved into mobile self-directed language-learning applications (SDLLAs). Although there has been research into the approaches and benefits of these apps as a whole, there has not been much investigation into which gameful approaches these apps are using. In this paper, relevant SDLLAs are analysed to extract information about their frequently used gamification elements. These elements are then compared to approaches used in other educational settings. The research method involved seeking out SDLLAs that are highly rated and have been downloaded numerous times, analysing the gameful design components and then comparing the data to other studies. The results of this paper deepen the understanding of language education development concerning gamification.
The full version can be found on the ACM website here: https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3434780.3436597